Pieg Lang, from China, highlighted that what it’s needed is to think in a broader sense the national contributions (NDC): "we need to connect the planned actions with the citizens and other social actors, but also with the resources that are available". In addition, he mentioned that it was important to coordinate and locate these funds in a balanced way according to national needs, both in mitigation and adaptation.
The Ecuadorian, Andrés Mogro, expanded on a crucial issue such as financing. He mentioned that "NDCs are not just a number because this implies having a limited vision of them, and that the need is not only for money but for resources in a broad sense". He stressed that in terms of financing,there is a great imbalance between mitigation and adaptation (90% against 10% respectively) and that the mobilization of resources has increased but not their provision.Finally, he pointed out that the issue of eligibility continues to be a problem: those categorized as middle-income countries have difficulties in obtaining financing and that they still need to work on what is climate finance and what is not.
Xolisa Ngwadla, from South Africa, noted that it was not possible to discuss the agenda after 2020 without taking into account the results obtained so far, for which it is also necessary to have clarity on how developed countries can support those in development. They mentioned that it is necessary that the rule book on which they are working is reflecting the perspectives of all the actors.
The Third World Network organization was very critical regarding three points as well. On the one hand, that the results achieved before 2020, such as the Doha Amendment, are being left behind and that the responsibilities on these are moving.On the other hand, that must coexist with the decision of the United States to leave the Paris agreement in the next three years and that NGOs are watching that they do not destroy the process achieved. Finally, it will be a challenge to generate a representative work program, guided by all the Parties and not imposed from above by a few.
There are many expectations of this COP23, as well as the challenges that arise, taking into account the little time left for the implementation of the Paris Agreement, it will be essential that the process is inclusive and that national contributions take a more comprehensive view.
by Luz Falivene